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METIS is an energy system modelling software for the European electricity, gas, heat and hydrogen sectors.

Used for simulating the short-term operation of energy systems across the EU and neighbouring countries, the METIS model helps inform the EU’s evidence-based energy policy making.

The model allows for the hour-by-hour simulation of Europe’s energy systems for up to one year, taking into account uncertainties like weather variations. The model can be used, for example, to analyse the flexibility requirements of renewable energy solutions.

METIS consists of a number of interconnected modules or components which can be easily adjusted or added to. Technical notes on these, as well as other documentations of the model variables and indicators, are provided below. There is also a series of METIS studies covering sector coupling, electricity, heat and gas.

METIS was developed for the European Commission through several contracts. The Commission Directorate-General for Energy and the Joint Research Centre use the model to provide quantitative evidence for legislative proposals related to energy markets and infrastructure.


The METIS 3 project aims at moving towards a full-fledged energy model. New features to be added include the modelling of entire pathways, finer geographical resolution and a more detailed picture of the demand sector.

Ongoing studies explore sector coupling, digitalisation and the future role of the gas sector.

The project also helps with maintaining and upgrading the existing METIS model.

METIS 3 started in 2020 and is developed by a consortium of Artelys, Tractebel and Fraunhofer. The results will be gradually published on this web page.


The main objectives of METIS 2 were to extend the capabilities of the existing model with respect to electricity networks and sector coupling.

The project introduced modules for the distribution and transmission grids, and for hydrogen. The representation of hydropower was improved,  making it possible to study the impact of yearly weather on the flexibility of hydropower resources.

A web-based interface was implemented, allowing the METIS model to be run on cloud-based systems while using a desktop computer. The model improvements were demonstrated across five studies.

METIS 2 also contributed to the Impact Assessment of the Hydrogen and decarbonised gas market package

It was conducted from 2018 to 2022 by a consortium consisting of Artelys, Tractebel, RWTH-Aachen University and Comilas.


The first METIS project was launched in 2014. The objective was to develop a software which could model the European energy system, tailor-made to meet the European Commission’s needs.

A consortium (Artelys, RWTH Aachen University, ConGas and Frontier Economics) developed and delivered modules for the power, gas and heat sectors between January 2015 and December 2018. METIS 1 also included a total of 17 studies.

METIS at the Joint Research Centre

The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission uses the METIS model to provide analytic support for policy design, developing and disseminating results from energy system and market modelling exercises that advance the implementation of both short and long-term European energy objectives.

Typical topics of interest include multi-energy system integration, power and hydrogen network investments, energy infrastructure requirements, the climate-energy nexus and market price behaviour and design principles.

JRC’s work with the METIS energy model has fed into several policy documents. Their scientific reports are published on the open JRC Publications Repository.