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METIS is a mathematical model providing analysis of the European energy system for electricity, gas, hydrogen and heat.

The METIS model simulates the operation of energy systems and markets on an hourly basis over a year, while also factoring in uncertainties like weather variations. It can for example analyse the hour-by-hour impact of using more renewable energy and it can be used at both national or regional level.

The European Commission uses METIS to further support its evidence-based policy making, for electricity and gas. It has been used to prepare Commission’s proposals for legislation on energy markets and infrastructure.

METIS builds on a number of interconnected modules. Technical notes on these, as well as other documentation of the model variables and indicators, are provided below. There is also a series of METIS studies covering sector coupling, electricity, heat and gas.

The METIS 2 project

METIS 2 was conducted from 2018 to 2022. The main objectives of the project were to complement the existing modelling tools in the European Commission, provide stronger analytical capabilities, increase transparency and offer a platform for coordination of related analyses. Further developing the METIS model was notably focused on distribution and transmission grid modelling. The updated METIS tool comes with major novelties, such as a distribution grid module, a transmission grid module and an enhanced multi-energy representation of the EU energy system, integrating also hydrogen.

METIS studies

Since 2016, the Commission has conducted a series of METIS studies on sector coupling, electricity, heat and gas.