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Energy

National energy and climate plans (NECPs)

In order to meet the EU’s new energy and climate targets for 2030, Member States are required to establish a 10-year NECP for the period from 2021 to 2030.

To meet the EU’s energy and climate targets for 2030, EU countries need to establish a 10-year integrated national energy and climate plan (NECP) for the period from 2021 to 2030. Introduced under the Regulation on the governance of the energy union and climate action (EU/2018/1999), the rules required the final NECP to be submitted to the Commission by the end of 2019.

Areas covered by the NECPs

The national plans outline how the EU countries intend to address

  • energy efficiency
  • renewables
  • greenhouse gas emissions reductions
  • interconnections
  • research and innovation

This approach requires a coordination of purpose across all government departments. It also provides a level of planning that will ease public and private investment. The fact that all EU countries are using a similar template means that they can work together to make efficiency gains across borders.

The process

Under the governance regulation Member States had to submit their draft NECPs for the period 2021-2030 to the Commission by 31 December 2018. These were analysed by the Commission with an overall assessment and country-specific recommendations published in June 2019. Taking these recommendations into account, Member States were then required to submit their final NECPs by 31 December 2019.

On 17 September 2020, the Commission published a detailed EU-wide assessment of the final NECPs. As a follow-up, and as part of the 2020 energy union report, the Commission published individual assessments of each of the national plans for further guidance.

Each country must submit a progress report every 2 years, according to the structure, format, technical details and process set out in the Implementing Regulation. The Commission will, as part of the state of the energy union report, monitor the EU's progress as a whole towards achieving these targets.

To better develop and implement the plans, the Member States were required to consult citizens, businesses and regional authorities in the drafting and finalisation process.

The governance regulation also required Member States to submit by the start of 2020 national long term strategies looking forward to 2050.

By 30 June 2023, Member States will submit to the Commission draft updated NECPs. The Commission has published guidance to Member States on the process and scope of this update.

Draft NECPs

The Commission published a Communication assessing the 28 draft NECPs in June 2019 (COM/2019/285), together with specific recommendations and a detailed "Staff Working Document" for each EU countries. They are available in the table below. The Commission also published detailed annexes on methodology (SWD/2019/212) and national forestry accounting plans (SWD/2019/213).

Commission analysis and recommendations on draft NECPs submitted (in early 2019)

Member State

Commission analysis of draft NECPs

 

Draft NECPs, as submitted

Recommendations

Report

Factsheet

 

National language

EN

National website

        

Austria

C/2019/4420

EN

EN

 

DE

EN *

n/a

Belgium

C/2019/4401

EN

EN

 

Belgium’s draft NECP

EN *

Belgium (FR) (NL)

Bulgaria

C/2019/4402

EN

EN

 

BG

EN *

Bulgaria

Croatia

C/2019/4411

EN

EN

 

HR

EN

Croatia (HR) (EN)

Cyprus

C/2019/4413

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Cyprus (EN)

Czechia

C/2019/4403

EN

EN

 

CS

EN *

Czech

Denmark

C/2019/4404

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

n/a

Estonia

C/2019/4406

EN

EN

 

ET

EN *

n/a

Finland

C/2019/4426

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Finland (EN)

France

C/2019/4410

EN

EN

 

FR

n/a

France

Germany

C/2019/4405

EN

EN

 

DE | EN

EN *

Germany

Greece

C/2019/4408

EN

EN

 

EL

EN *

Greece

Hungary

C/2019/4417

EN

EN

 

HU

EN *

n/a

Ireland

C/2019/4407

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Ireland

Italy

C/2019/4412

EN

EN

 

IT

EN *

Italy

Latvia

C/2019/4414

EN

EN

 

LV

EN *

Latvia

Lithuania

C/2019/4415

EN

EN

 

LT

EN

Lithuania

Luxembourg

C/2019/4416

EN

EN

 

DE

EN *

Luxembourg

Malta

C/2019/4418

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

n/a

Netherlands

C/2019/4419

EN

EN

 

NL

EN

Netherlands

Poland

C/2019/4421

EN

EN

 

Part 1 | Part 2
| Part 3

Part 1*

Poland

Portugal

C/2019/4422

EN

EN

 

PT

EN *

Portugal

Romania

C/2019/4423

EN

EN

 

RO

EN

Romania (RO ) (EN)

Slovakia

C/2019/4425

EN

EN

 

SK

EN *

n/a

Slovenia

C/2019/4424

EN

EN

 

SI

EN *

Slovenia

Spain

C/2019/4409

EN

EN

 

ES

EN *

n/a

Sweden

C/2019/4427

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

Sweden

UK

C/2019/4428

EN

EN

 

EN

EN

UK

*Courtesy translation provided by European Commission services

Final NECPs

The final integrated national energy and climate plans for the period from 2021 to 2030, as submitted by EU countries, are presented in a table together with the Commission’s individual assessments on each plan (in English and national language).

Commission assessment of the final NECPs

The Commission delivered its assessment of the cumulative impact of the 27 NECPs (COM(2020) 564 final) on 17 September 2020, in parallel with the proposals for a new 2030 Climate Target Plan.

The overall assessment showed that for renewable energy, the combined commitment by EU countries was estimated at 33.1%-33.7% - above the existing renewable energy target of at least 32%. Its cost-effectiveness underpinned this positive trend, with potential to expand even further. For energy efficiency, the cumulative impact of the different NECPs provide net savings of 29.4%-29.7%. The figures, higher than the one estimated in the draft NECPs, still fell short of the then biding energy efficiency target of 32.5%. The assessment also concludes that the EU is on track to surpass its current 2030 greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 40% - with a combined impact of roughly 41%.

The provisions relating to internal energy market and energy security led the Commission to conclude that energy security in the traditional energy sense is not at risk, but there was room for greater flexibility on the market side to accommodate higher shares of renewables through smart technologies and more storage. On research, innovation and competitiveness, there was an overall need for more detailed information provided by the Member States. The assessment also underlined the importance of linking research and innovation policies to match the energy and climate ambitions. Some progress was noted in terms of regional cooperation and by linking energy and climate policies to environment policies, with space for further improvement.

Moreover, the 2020 energy union report, published on 14 October 2020, included 27 staff working documents with the Commission’s assessment of each individual NECP, also available in the table above.

In order to meet the increased EU ambition expressed in the European Green Deal, the Commission proposed to revise the existing legislation in 2021.

Public consultation on NECPs

When preparing the NECPs, Member States were required to give the public early and effective opportunities to participate, in line with article 10 of the governance regulation. This included setting reasonable timeframes to allow the public to be informed, participate and express its views. A summary of the public's views had to be attached to the NECP.

Further to this obligation, it is important to remember that all Member States are parties, in their own right, to the “Aarhus Convention” of 25 June 1998, which establishes a number of rights of the public with regard to decision-making on environment matters.

The Aarhus Compliance Committee issued, on 28 May 2019, an Advice to Member States on the public consultation process of the final NECPs. Member States were therefore advised to make sure that

  • the arrangements are transparent and fair
  • within the arrangements, the necessary information is provided to the public
  • the requirements of article 6(3), (4) and (8) of the Aarhus Convention are met, including reasonable timeframes and ensuring that due account is taken of the outcomes of public participation
  • Member States ensure that all options, which were open at the time of the preparation of the draft 2021-2030 NECPs, are open at the time of the public participation procedure

National long-term strategies

Under the governance regulation, EU countries were also required to develop national long-term strategies by 1 January 2020 and ensure consistency between long-term-strategies and the 10-year NECPs.

Documents

Related links