- Publication date
- 10 July 2019
- Directorate-General for Energy
This study aims to measure the flexibility needs arising from a higher penetration of variable renewable electricity, and to identify and select options for increasing the flexibility of the electricity system. A first report by the Oeko-Institut presents a historical assessment of progress made in the integration of variable renewable electricity in Europe, and develops first-tier indicators for flexibility. A second report by Artelys proposes a methodology for designing and optimising flexibility portfolios at Member State-level, and presents the results of an optimisation based on Artelys' Crystal model. The study is the last task of a broader project ("Mainstreaming RES" (ENER/C1/2014-668) and is intended as an input in Member States' preparation of their National Energy and Climate Plans under the proposed Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union (COM(2016) 759 final).