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Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan

The Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP) High-Level Group supports the energy transition of the Baltic Sea region and aims to achieve an open and integrated energy market amongst in the EU countries of the Baltic region. 

The members of the BEMIP High-Level Group are Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Finland and Sweden. Norway also participates as an observer.


The High-Level Group is organised around a 3-tier structure, with the European Commission as permanent chair

  • BEMIP High-Level group at Minister level 
  • BEMIP High-Level group at Senior Official level 
  • BEMIP High-Level group at technical level

BEMIP Memorandum of Understanding

The first Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the BEMIP initiative was signed on 17 June 2009 and focused on electricity and gas markets, infrastructure and power generation.

On 8 June 2015, a new MoU was signed extending the initiative's scope to security of supply, energy efficiency, renewable energy and the integration of the Baltic States' electricity network into the continental European network, including their synchronous operation.

BEMIP priorities

The BEMIP High-Level Group priorities are implemented in a coordinated approach through a comprehensive set of measures captured in dedicated Action Plans.

The first BEMIP Action Plan was agreed in June 2009 and amended in March 2011 (West Baltic Task Force Action Plan) and in March 2013 (Roadmap for the Implementation of Natural Gas Projects in the Eastern Baltic Sea). 

Following the adoption of the new MoU in June 2015, a second Action Plan was adopted to reflect the political guidelines of the memorandum. 

Achievements under BEMIP, as well as developments in the energy sector, including the revision of the European macro-regional strategies, the new EU Multi-Annual Financial Framework and the updated energy and climate targets for 2030, in accordance with the Climate Target Plan, called for a the adoption of a third revised action plan in 2021.

Achievements and activities

BEMIP is one of the oldest and most advanced set ups in terms of regional cooperation for energy infrastructure, having achieved tangible results, such as ending the energy isolation of the Baltic Sea region. 

Further efforts are ongoing in the region to complete the synchronisation of the 3 Baltic States with European networks, increase transmission capacity in the remote Nordic area, develop a regional decarbonised gas market, work towards the decarbonisation of the gas systems in the region and make the most of the region's energy efficiency and renewable energy potential, both onshore and offshore.

Electricity infrastructure 

As part of the BEMIP implementation, a number of cross-border and internal infrastructure Projects of Common Interest have been completed across the Baltics to improve their integration with the Nordic electricity market. 

The key electricity infrastructure projects, such as Estlink 1 and 2, Nordbalt and the LitPol Link, connecting the 3 Baltic States with Finland, Sweden and Poland respectively, significantly improved the Baltic countries' integration in the EU energy market and their security of supply.

Baltic synchronisation 

The 3 Baltic States' electricity grid still operates synchronously with the Russian and Belarusian systems. A dedicated Working Group steers the work to achieve, by February 2025, the synchronisation of the Baltics' grid with the continental European network.


  1. 19 December 2023

    The energy ministers of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Poland and Commissioner Kadri Simson signed a Political Declaration taking note of the new deadline for the Baltic synchronisation and establishing the steps to follow until it is achieved. 

  2. 3 August 2023

    The prime ministers of the 3 Baltic States agreed to bring the deadline for synchronisation forward to February 2025.

  3. 20 June 2019

    Accompanied by Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič, they met again for the signature of the political roadmap taking stock of the progress and setting new milestones. 

  4. 28 June 2018

    The Heads of State or Government of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Poland together with Commission President Juncker, endorsed the political roadmap for synchronising the Baltic States' electricity grid with the continental European network by the target date 2025.

Offshore development

On 30 September 2020, the Energy Ministers for the 8 EU countries in the Baltic Sea region and Commissioner Kadri Simson signed a declaration committing to closer cooperation on offshore wind in the Baltic Sea. 

The BEMIP High-Level Group adopted a work programme for offshore wind development in the region in October 2021, kickstarting the implementation of this programme by establishing the BEMIP Offshore Wind Working Group. 

At the Energy Security Summit held in Denmark, August 2022, the EU countries around the Baltic Sea agreed on improving their cooperation to strengthen the region’s energy security and increase the current wind energy capacity of the Baltic Sea sevenfold by 2030. This was followed by the establishment of non-binding offshore renewable energy sea-basin goals for 2050, with intermediary targets in 2030 and 2040 for the Baltic Sea region under the TEN-E Regulation. 

To translate this new ambition into action, BEMIP members took note of work priorities for the Offshore Wind Working Group for the year 2024, with a view to strengthening the cooperation and accelerating the work on implementation. 

Action was immediately taken by launching a joint BEMIP tender planning. This tool will give more visibility and transparency on how BEMIP countries will transform their ambitions into tangible projects.

Gas infrastructure and decarbonisation of gases in the Baltic Sea region

The High-Level Group’s work programme, adopted in 2021, sets out the intention to develop a regional strategy for decarbonising the methane system and promote sector coupling supporting and increasing the use of hydrogen, particularly from renewable sources and biomethane, in the market. 

To bolster this aim, BEMIP Senior Officials endorsed the Non-Paper on 'Working towards regional market integration and decarbonisation of gases in the Baltic Sea region' in May 2024. 

BEMIP members agree to take a regional approach towards gas market decarbonisation in the Baltic Sea region based on regional cooperation in order to enable the scale-up of infrastructure for the production, transport, storage and imports of hydrogen and biomethane.

Hydrogen projects of common interest

Thanks to the implementation of the trans-European energy policy (TEN-E policy), 3 BEMIP Hydrogen Projects of Common Interest (PCIs) feature on the first Union list of PCIs and PMIs which entered into force in April 2024. They will harness the potential of hydrogen production in the Baltic Sea and connect production with consumption centres

  • The Nordic Hydrogen Route (NHR) – Bothnian Bay – aims at connecting production/storage/export facilities for hydrogen as well as hydrogen offtakers in Sweden and in Finland
  • The Nordic-Baltic Hydrogen Corridor aims to connect hydrogen production facilities in Finland to Germany, via Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland
  • The Baltic Sea Hydrogen Collector aims to connect hydrogen production facilities onshore and offshore in Sweden, Finland and the Baltic Sea region with hydrogen offtake in Germany

Secure gas supplies

Several key PCIs have contributed to increasing the resilience of the gas grids in the Baltic Sea region in the past years. In the context of disruption of Russian gas supplies, these projects are extremely important to ensure secure gas supplies and to cope with the interruption of gas imports in the region.

The enhancement of the interconnection between Latvia and Estonia, the Balticconnector, the Klaipeda LNG Terminal, and the Świnoujście LNG Terminal have already ensured market integration and decreased dependence on Russian gas in a region historically dependent on a single supplier. The situation has further improved with the launch in May 2022 of the interconnector between Poland and Lithuania (GIPL), the enhancement of the interconnection between Lithuania and Latvia and the Baltic Pipe, bringing for the first time gas from the Northern Seas to the region through Poland. Further flexibility is available with an expanded Świnoujście LNG Terminal, and an enhancement of the Inčukalns Underground Gas Storage (UGS).

The link between the Baltic Sea region and Central-Eastern Europe was completed in 2022 with the interconnection between Poland and Slovakia. The region has also benefited to the greatest extent from grants from the Connecting Europe Facility for Energy

Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania agreed on 20 April 2020 to establish a process for the future regional gas market integration of their respective countries. It will be the first 4-country wide cross-border gas market merger in the EU, which will help to upscale the production of renewable and decarbonised gases in the region.


30 APRIL 2024
BEMIP offshore wind joint tender planning
22 DECEMBER 2022
Projects of Common Interest in energy infrastructure in the Nordic and Baltic Sea region
Baltic Sea offshore wind joint declaration of intent
20 APRIL 2020
Roadmap on regional gas market integration between EE/FI/LT/LV
24 JUNE 2019
Political roadmap on the synchronisation of the Baltic States' electricity networks with the continental European network via Poland
11 JUNE 2018
Factsheet: Ending the energy isolation of the Baltic Sea region
BEMIP Action Plan: 2021 revised action plan
11 MAY 2015
BEMIP Action Plan: 2015
BEMIP Action Plan: 2009

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